Both things utilized to measure the existence of nonheterosexual themes considerably surpassed this criterion.

The number of 2 minute intervals coded for each variable related to sexual minorities was summed across the intervals in an episode to gauge the frequency with which same sex sexual behavior and talk about nonheterosexual sexual issues occurred within each program episode for purposes of reliability assessment. This summing led to converting nominal data (i.e., presence/absence) during the 2 moment interval degree into regularity counts in the program degree (range periods by which exact same sex intimate behavior took place in the episode). Consequently, the dependability analyses utilized the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The ICC is an evaluation regarding the percentage of variance within the measures owing to coder agreement corrected for opportunity. For period information like the regularity matters utilized here, the ICC is the same as Krippendorf’s alpha (Krippendorf, 1980).

An ICC of .70 had been utilized due to the fact criterion for appropriate dependability. Both things utilized to measure the existence of nonheterosexual themes considerably surpassed this criterion. The ICC for exact same intercourse intimate behavior had been .97 in 12 months 1 and .99 in 12 months 2. The ICC for speak about nonheterosexual intimate problems ended up being .89 in 12 months 1 and .95 in 12 months 2.

Information Analyses

To respond to the very first collection of research questions concerning the prevalence of nonheterosexual material on tv, we utilized episode degree information ( ag e.g., percentages of episodes containing exact same sex intimate behavior and containing speak about sex pertaining to nonheterosexuals) and chi square analyses to look at between team differences by using these nominal data. For the 2nd group of research concerns, we utilized just those implies that included nonheterosexual intimate content and evaluated their regularity across 2 moment periods ( ag e.g., range periods each hour of system time with nonheterosexual intimate talk). Of these analyses, we used t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) to check team distinctions. Significant omnibus F tests had been followed up with post hoc comparisons making use of Tamhane’s T2 test, which will not assume equal cellular size or equal variance, to recognize significant distinctions across teams.

Results.Prevalence of Nonheterosexual Sexual Content

About one out of six programs within our examples included any content that is sexualbehavior or talk) associated with nonheterosexuals. The increase that is slight nonheterosexual intimate content through the 2001 2002 period (14.5%) to your 2002 2003 period (17.4%) ended up being significant, П‡ 2 (1, N = 2715) = 4.15, p dining Table 1 shows the percentage of suggests that contained any exact exact same intercourse intimate behavior and any intimate talk associated with nonheterosexuals by system genres, by variety of community, and also by time of day aired. For system kind, the 11 channels had been categorized into certainly one of three groups: commercial broadcast (including the 3 major companies ABC, CBS, and NBC as well as Fox, UPN, and WB), cable music activity (including BET and MTV), and premium cable film (including Cinemax, HBO, and Showtime). Pertaining to time of time broadcast, shows airing between 3:00 and 8:00 p.m. had been categorized as late evening that is afternoon/early those shown between 8:00 and 11:00 p.m. were classified as prime time.

Note: Within variety of community and time of day aired, percentages when you look at the exact same line that don’t share subscripts vary at p dining Table 1 ). In many instances, there was clearly a top level of communication from a genre’s general positioning for exact exact same intercourse behavior that is sexual speak about nonheterosexual intimate problems. Furthermore, genres’ standings on both these factors had been fairly stable throughout the two television periods.

Three genres had been regularly reduced in both kinds of nonheterosexual sexual content: Children’s cartoons (none of which included sexual behavior or intimate talk pertaining to nonheterosexuals in a choice of 12 months), news mags (0% for behavior and talk in bdsm fuck 12 months 1; 3.2per cent and 6.5%, respectively, for behavior and talk in 12 months 2), and talk programs (0 and 3.0per cent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 2.2 and 8.9percent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk for 12 months 2). 3 Genres that had a tendency to own the greatest proportions of programs with nonheterosexual content had been variety/comedy and film that is feature. Designed for television films and programs classified as “other” additionally had fairly high proportions with nonheterosexual sexual content; nonetheless, both these groups included just a small amount of programs (n = 7), rendering it tough to draw conclusions about them. Consequently, we do not highlight the findings associated with them although we include these latter two genres in the tables.

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